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Guelaguetza Festival

The Guelaguetza is festival performed every year in Oaxaca, Mexico. Oaxaca’s Guelaguetza is one of the state’s most popular celebrations, people will reserve their tickets and itineraries months in advance. During Pre-Hispanic times, the Guelaguetza originated as a rite performed to the ancient gods in the site known by the Zapotecs as Daninayaaloani or the hill of magnificent view. The ancient Mexica worshiped several gods, including Centéotl, the Corn Goddess, whom they revered and celebrated annually with dances, ceremonies, and a massive eight-day feast. The Zapotec term, Guelaguetza is a gift of thanks that bears no obligation other than return. Guelaguetza signifies profound friendship, giving, compassion, love and collaboration.

Los Valles Centrales, La Mixteca, La Caada Tuxtepec, La Costa, La Sierra Juárez and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec amongst other groups are all represented at the reunion of the annual event. 
The event includes a large portion of dancing. Dancers from different regions arrive at different times of the day to perform fandangos to the sounds of various flavours and fandangos. Poems that chronicle and praise the origins of a dance are often read at the start of each one.
They have their own traditions, and many of them remain popular for years to come owing to their appeal. Feather dance and pineapple flower are two of the most popular shows of the festival.

Anna Bruce / © Culture Trip

The Guelaguetza’s musical accompaniment is a wind band. The dancers are accompanied by real musicians while they execute their routines. An annual performance of the tale of Princess Donaj, the last daughter of Zapotec monarch Cosijoeza, who is claimed to have offered her life to rescue the people from the evil princess, is held in addition to the musical performances each year.

While this spectacle brings international attention to Oaxaca. The increasing of tourism has led to changes in the festival. Making it more commercialized and appealing to everyone who desires to attend this festival.

Between this first video and the following one you can tell an obvious separation. The first video comes directly from indigenous people in neighboring villages. It is too costly to travel to the city for the Guelaguetza. Although the people in these villages are unbothered by it because they create their own festival . The important of this practice is to help each other as a community and to give without expecting to receive.

In the commercialized version although beautiful only aim to improve on the aesthetic and it feels more inviting for our tourism than culture.

Cited Works

  • Flores-Marcial, Xochitl Marina. A History of Guelaguetza in Zapotec Communities of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, 16th Century to the Present. University of California, Los Angeles, 2015.
  • Hernández-Escampa, Marco, and Daniel Barrera-Fernández. “Tourism pressure as a cultural change factor: The case of the Guelaguetza festival, Oaxaca, Mexico.” The Routledge Handbook of Festivals. Routledge, 2018. 357-365.
MLAQuijano, Jesús Lizama. La Guelaguetza en Oaxaca: fiesta, relaciones interétnicas y procesos de construcción simbólica en el contexto urbano. Ciesas, 2006.

Buchi Emecheta, Nigerian-born novelist

Florence Onyebuchi also known as Buchi Emecheta was born in July 21, 1944 in Lagos, Nigeria. Her parents were part of indigenous group called Igbo. They were native to the Umuezeokolo Odeanta village in the Delta State. She spent much of her youth at home until she was able to convince her parents of her desire to learn. She was able to begin her education at a missionary school for girls later on. When she was just nine years old, she had to deal with the loss of her father. She planned to keeping studying and managed to earn a scholarship to pay for her tuition. She was engaged to a schoolboy when she was just 11 years old, which is a little surprising. When she was 16 years old, she lost her mother and was left an orphan. After two years of marriage and two children, she left for London to meet with her husband, who was currently a student at a university. She had a total of five children, all of whom she devoted her time and energy to, despite her unhappy marriage. Writing in her spare time was a way for her to cope with the stress of living with her husband. As a black woman living in London, she wrote about her experiences there. She was able to land a job as a librarian and graduated from the University of London with a bachelor’s degree in sociology.

Buchi with her five children.

Second-Class Citizen

In 1974, Emecheta published an autobiography called Second- Class Citizen. The story of a Black woman’s struggle for survival. As she grew into a woman, she became more aware of her own aspirations and desires. Coming  from a good class position Nigerian family to an impoverished one in Europe’s predominantly white society.

The Joys of Motherhood 

The novel, The Joys of Motherhood, released in 1979, brought her to the broader public’s attention. Nigerian urban women’s socio-economic and cultural concerns are addressed in this study. Having children in a marriage can be difficult for a black Nigerian woman, and this struggle is made obvious. The novel tells the story of  a young Igbo woman, Emecheta relates the story of an aspiring mother and traditionalist. The woman lives her  entire life in Lagos, Nigeria, where she observes the gradual erosion of her people’s traditional traditions due to Western influence. Ending her life with no possibility of becoming a mother to a large family is a crushing blow to her aspirations and desires.

Notable works

  • The Bride Price (1976)
  • The Slave Girl (1977)
  • Destination Biafra (1982)
  • Double Yoke(1982)
  • The Rape of Shavi (1983)

Emecheta focused the majority of the time on making novels but later branched out to write plays and children books. Emecheta was awarded the Jock Campbell Prize in 1978, one of several honors she obtained throughout her writing career. On a list of the 100 most influential women in history, Emecheta ranked 98th in BBC History Magazine’s August 2018 issue. Emecheta paved her own way to world wide recognition and implemented influential studies through her writing. Her legacy will live on for decades as one of the first Black female novelist to publish in the UK.

Cited Works

  • Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Buchi Emecheta”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 17 Jul. 2021, Accessed 21 December 2021.
  • Busby, Margaret (3 February 2017). “Buchi Emecheta obituary”. The Guardian.
  • Onwordi, Sylvester, “Remembering my mother Buchi Emecheta, 1944–2017”, New Statesman, 31 January 2017.

Luis Valdez Playwright and Actor

Javier Puga Jr

Luis Valdez was raised in Delano, California and went on to Achieve great things. he is most known for Zoot Suit Riots on Broadway. Which had major success in California since that’s where those riots took place in the of summer of 1943. When Zoot Suit riots came to New York it did not have that much acclaimed success.

The other great things he was able to Direct were “La Bamba” and the short works of los Actos.

His early works were visionary attributes to the Mexican- American Trajectory. It was about the Chicano Movement and the lack of information to the migrants who would arrived to California to find work. Nonetheless the working conditions were terrible. He was not the pioneer of that movement but he knew he had to become involved in educating la Raza Chicana.

One day He ran into Doleres Huerta who was the Co-founder of the United Farm workers Union Along with Cesar Chavez. Valdez took it upon himself to ask Huerta to arrange a meeting between him and Chavez. and all parties agreed.

Valdez had the opportunity to pitch his ideas to Chavez. He wanted theatre movement for the chicano people the migrants who were left out in horrible conditions. he wanted to tell stories that could impact and bring awareness of the lack of education around social justice and the working conditions.

This Dynamic trio went on to create El Teatro Campesino. which opened many doors for many upcoming actors and there was no need for famed actors these Actos were meant for the people by the people that had lived and living in those communities impacted by the unfair working conditions.

thats what made this dynamic trio a success, they created something form the ground up that told stories for everyone.

With this Inspirational artist he became the Pioneer of Chicano Movement, he opened new horizons for the community.

His legacy leaves him with the titles of Playwright, Director, screenwriter, actor and teacher.

I’m still astonished by his story. I grew up around his movement and I had no idea who he was until I took the Latin-x course at Brooklyn College my entire existence came full circle 20 years later and cross country. When I discovered his Actos were discussing parts of my hometown by name. It was a special discovery.

Mayes Castillero Rubeo, Costume Designer

In 1962, Mayes Castillero Rubeo was born in Mexico City. She moved to the United States in the 1980s to study at the Fashion and Costume Trade Tech College in Los Angeles. Her talent and desire led her to Italy, where she worked with Enrico Sabbatini, a costume designer and film and stage producer who became her mentor.
Rubeo experimented in cinema costume design, collaborating with indie producers on films like Men with Gun (1977), Sunshine State (2002), and Casa de los Babys (2003). Her breakthrough to major Hollywood productions came with the film Apocalypto (2006), which she co-directed with Mel Gibson.

Apocalypto (2006)

During the film Apocalypto she was given the freedom to explore with her creativity. She wanted a lot of corporations of color to set certain tones. She used colors that derived straight from nature. Every single piece of garment and clothing was handmade. Accessories that the Mayan used for luxury such as jade was strongly depicted amongst the upper class. Rubeo created faux jade with hand painted pieces of wood.

In her career as a costume designer, Mayes Rubeo has worked on some of Hollywood’s highest-grossing films, including Avatar (2009), John Cartes (2012), and Warcarft (2016). The costumes in Avatar were generated digitally. Digital costumes require graphic texture mapping. Designers such as Rubeo are fusing digital and physical languages, as well as pushing traditional design and fabrication methods. In the category of Excellence in Fantasy Film, she was nominated for a Costume Designers Guild Award. Rubeo’s career ignited after this and was hired in many successful films going forward.

Notable Work

Great Wall (2016)

Beyond every arrange of costume designs comes an intensive research. Historical references and context are vital for the authenticity of her work. She made about ten thousands costumes during this film. The director of this film wanted for potent colors without them being overwhelming. She used primary colors as her main focus but with the combinations of different hues and tones.

Oscars 2020

In 2020, the Oscar’s nominations included Rubeo as the “first” Latina to be nominated for Best Costume Design. She was nominated for her performance in Taika Waititi’s “Jojo Rabbit.” While working in this film she curated a varied of choices by exploring the use of both new and antique fabrics.

Time after time Rubeo has demonstrate her capacity to take risks and go beyond expectations. She is the right women to take any task from ancient civilizations to fantasy action. Rubeo is an inspiration for the Latin American community. She is serious about continuing to break barriers and building a path for more people of color to work in the industry of film and design.

Teatro Petul (Petul Theatre)


Chiapas Highlands, México

  • The National Indigenist Institute (INI) arranged different development projects to educate the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya communities. The communities not knowing the outcomes of these projects felt reluctant to take interest. The INI was desperately looking for strategies to win over the attention of these communities.  They tried presentations with a projector and an electrical generator. The path to these communities consisted of riding horses on slippery footpaths. Through the many failed attempts to encourage engagement in the vaccination and sanitation events they leaned on the arts.

Who is Petul?

  • The artistic approach of using puppets had been the most successful innovation to gain involvement within the people. Before Teatro Petul, there was Teatro Guigñol, the character was dressed in european clothing and the narratives used were similar to Red Riding Hood. Both puppeteers and audience were confused by the adaptations. The indigenous people could not relate to the stories, it was extremely foreign to them. With trial and error Petul was born, a character that assimilated to the people of these villages and looked like them. They gave the puppets indigenous features and they wore traditional clothing from the municipalities of Tenejapa, Oxchuc, Chenalhó, Huixtán, Chamula, and Zinacantán. Both the skits and dialogues were changed to an appropriate manner that would suit them.

Talk of the town

  • The production was fulfilled by Marco Antonio Montero (inventor of Petul) with 6 indigenous men, 3 from the Tzotziles community and the 3 other from the Tzeltales community. The most popular show was called La Familia Rasca-Rasca (The Scratch Scratch Family), created to inform the community about health and sanitation during the break of typhus. They created a song to go along with the performances and to further the spread of awareness. Songs that could be remembered easily. People in the community would stop doing their daily chores just to see the show. Children were far more fascinated and convinced that the puppets were living things. Success after success, Petul Theatre gained trust of the highland Maya. Several different topics such as literacy, school attendance, urbanization, knowing their laws, acquiring land, and so many more were turn into entertaining shows.


An association called Civil Vientos Culturales with the assistance of the National Institute of Women curated a tour programmed to reach as many communities in the small indigenous towns of Chiapas. This tour made it to 20 different towns and reached 4,750 people. The goal was to promote alcohol prevention, domestic violence, and maternal deaths. Performances were carried out in 3 dialects (Tsotsil, Tseltal, Chol) and in spanish.

Cited Works

  • Lewis, Stephen E. “Modernizing Message, Mystical Messenger: The Teatro Petul in the Chiapas Highlands, 1954-1974.” The Americas, vol. 67, no. 3, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 375–97,
  • Román VM. Petul theater: indigenism in Chiapas as the theory and praxis of an integral nationalism. Rev Elec Psic Izt. 2019;22(1):611-627.
  • Castellanos, Rosario. “Teatro Petul: Rosario Castellanos.” Revista De La Universidad De México,

Carl Maria Von Weber

Carl Maria Von Weber 

By Mirna Tadros

Carl Maria Von Weber started his life on November 18th 1786 in what we know as Eutin Holstein and died in the year 1826 in London,England. Weber was highly known as being an composer and that of having a father is part of the thaer community as he was a theater manager and a musician at once. His life was never that easy as he was born with a deformed him which made him quite weak. His fellow musicians and composers such as Micheal Haydn and Abbe Vogler encouraged him not to give up on his dreams and continued to take lessons in order to become a composer. Once his name began to be known such as the time of the Breslau he career shot straight up. His operas were amazing as he was the head of the Prague Opera in which he made it successful before it could fail. Soon after he took a break and began writing his own masterpieces which include “ The Freeshooter”,’Euryanthe and finally Oberon in which all operas were a hit. 

Carl Maria von Weber – Der Freischütz – Overture

His most famous Opera that is known as “ The Freeshooter’ is known as Des Freischutz as it talks about a gruesome and dark story about a little aged forester in which sees himself in a situation in which he is with the devil in which they are having a competition to see which one is the best at shooting in order to marry the foresters.It is known to be one of his most famous pieces. As it talks about the aspect of the supernatural and how it was strange at the time this made it have a great background towards the concept of good and bad in which are drawn from one’s emotions. What makes it that much more entertaining is that they have a scene known as the Wolf’s glen where it is full of horror music which is scary and spooky to many.

His next to only and final operas include Euryanthe in which were known to be an achievements as it included libretto and that of piano music. What makes Weber special is that when he went to London he began to learn English based on the fact that he was beginning to work with James Planche, a librettist. What makes him a wonderful person is that what he did was constantly for his family. He continued to work and learn in order for his family to benefit from him in the future. With the aspect of Oberon we see that many talkative and active scenes and numerous devices used by the composers which they wanted to work on the theatrical art aspect of opera.What also see moments where we hear Exquisite music. Due to all his health issues he pushed through as he wanted to make the audience feel as if they are watching an opera they have never seen before and make it interesting with numerous scenes and acts and even actions being perceived throughout it all.

Resources :

Francisco Solorzano

In the recent production of Water By The Spoonful, I was able to work with Frank, Francisco, as he was the director. During the time together I was able to interview him and pick his brain on how he came to who he is today. As stories were shared with the company it became more noticeable Francisco wanted to hit home by representing the real world.

I longed to see Black and Latino characters onstage and build an ensemble dedicated to the same mission, so I decided to form the Barefoot Theatre Company in order to do so myself ” Francisco S. *

Why Theatre?

Latino actor, filmmaker, producer, and director Francisco Solorzano is the co-founder of Barefoot Theatre Company and more recent sister company, Barefoot Studio Pictures. With the motivation of creating a more diverse company with the focus of bringing opportunity to those that aren’t always seen, one may come to think, how did you get here?

During Francisco’s time in high school, he was going through a tough time as his guidance counselor, Mrs. Simon took notice as she introduced the world of theater, especially acting to his life. Francisco would come to be impacted by Mrs. Simon in helping unlock his art for acting, starting his career in theater and film from the beginning.

I quickly fell in love with the art of storytelling and the craft of acting. I didn’t look back once I enrolled at The Lee Strasberg Institute and HB Studios in NYC for teens which eventually led me to getting accepted into the NYU Intensive for High School students. 

Different Aspects of Theater and Film

Acting is not where he stayed. Following multiple forms of theater, and films more recently, he dabbled into directing, writing, and producing. For Francisco, it was all about the story at the end of the day, and how it resonates with him, even with any challenges it may come to face. In and outside of the story.

Francisco studied theater at Brooklyn College as a BFA student with David Garfield. During his education at Brooklyn College he was able to audition for multiple pieces, and as much as it help fill the want to act, the need to be represented shinned a little bit more. Theater influenced Francisco in ways that he took and used it to become a better person of theater. From starting as an actor to director, producer, writer, this path has only been growing for him.

During my education at Brooklyn College, I was unahppy with the works I was auditioning for. I wanted to have a great sense of responsibility for the play being presented and why. It’s always been vital for me to be a part of works that speak to underrepresented groups and provide opportunities for artists with in my community.

This was the creation for Barefoot Theatre Company, representation. Francisco did not stay put and accept how theater was back then in 1999, when Barefoot Theater Company was created. Even now, over 20 years later, Barefoot Studio Pictures to expand the mission onto film industry. Francisco isnt just an actor, or just a director, or just anything, he is a person of the performing arts. Having the purpose of creating a production that is true to how it is and giving people the opportunity to spread that mission.

I have a hard time simply auditioning and waiting around for the right role to come by. I’ve always wanted to be a part of the whole process of bringing a production to life.

Water By The Spoonful

Francisco was able to recently come back to Brooklyn College to direct the production of Water by the Spoonful by Quiana Alegria Hudes. As he picked this play to produce, I asked, what connection brought you to this play?

The play spokes volumes to me on multiple levels but seeing characters that grew up with and hearing voices I recognize from my everyday like as a exploration of flawed characters all attempting to work together and landing with a great sense of hope was another strong point of interest for me.

From the beginning of the rehearsals really do show to this as there were multiple times where we shared stories relating to these characters exact emotions and circumstances.

Quotes from Interview with Francisco Solorzano


Playbill Logo (2) – LeapDay Media

Playbill’s trademark yellow and black logo will always be associated with Broadway today. Playbill was first printed in 1884 for a single theater on 21st Street in New York City. the magazine is now used at nearly every Broadway Theatre, as well as many Off-Broadway productions. outside New York City, playbill is used at theaters throughout the United states.

Playbill' Does A Quick Online Pivot As Theaters Remain Closed Due To  COVID-19 : NPR

Founders and CEO’s

Frank Vance Strauss founded the New York Theatre program corporation specializing in printing theater programs. Strauss re imagined the concept of a theater program making ads a standard feature, and thus, transforming what was then a leaflet into a fully designed magazine.
In 1918 Strauss sold the company to his nephew, Richard M. Huber from 1918 onwards until the company started printing playbills for all of Broadway and by 1924 was printing 16 million programs for over 60 theaters.

Romeo and Juliet Broadway @ 51st Street Theatre - Tickets and Discounts |  Playbill
Playbill - Wikiwand
The Matchmaker Broadway @ Royale Theatre - Tickets and Discounts | Playbill

Although Strauss founded the idea for the magazine playbill, Richard M. Huber is given credit for starting the New York Theater program corporation, which by 1934-35 titled it’s magazines, the playbill.
Gilman Kraft, is also a former owner (now deceased) of playbill magazine and was the president of the west coast-based performing arts magazine. Kraft founded the readers subscription book club and then went on to publish playbill for ten years up until he moved to the west coast and founded performing arts.
as of now, playbill’s CEO and president is Philip S. Birsh.

The Purpose

Since 1884, playbill has been the exclusive publication for Broadway and Off-Broadway Theatre goers, providing complete cast and production credits for each show, as well as features and interviews highlighting the many voices that make up the Theatre community.
playbill proudly serves New York’s most prominent performing arts venues, including multiple venues at Lincoln center (Lincoln center theater, the metropolitan opera house,etc) and Carnegie hall. as well as Theatre’s across the country, including the Hollywood Pantages Theatre in Los Angeles and the Goodman Theater in Chicago

Over the past 25 years playbill has expanded beyond a print magazine and established itself as a trusted name in the Theatre industry, offering audiences new ways to connect to Broadway and Off-Broadway around the world via with over 3 million unique visitors, is the dominant site for Theatre news and features, delivering high-quality, original content to audiences everywhere.
over the past two decades, playbill has also launched it’s the one stop Broadway shop for Theatre fans, carrying the official souvenir merchandise of playbill and Broadway shows.
playbill offers a monthly subscription to keep up with the latest and greatest. it includes all of the editorials from the Theatre edition plus: Broadway and Off-Broadway listings, Off-Broadway news, New York scenes, regional and road Theatre news, London news, for the record, the cabaret beat, and a brief encounter. 

They also have, Playbuilder, which allows school and community Theatre productions around the world to build their very own Broadway quality playbill program.
moreover you can find something called, a playbill vault, which is a comprehensive online database of Broadway history that provides records of Broadway productions from 1930 to the present
and lastly, they offer playbill travel, which takes travelers and Broadway royalty around the globe to experience the sights, sounds and tastes of the world’s finest cultures, while offering world-class concerts at night.

New And Improved

Playbill Branding

The current branding and design that Playbill uses across multiple mediums is recognizable but outdated. One of the challenges is the fact that they have to put two brands on the cover page (the brand of the show as well as the playbill brand). So This redesign aims to bridge the legacy of Playbill’s two century legacy, to today’s audience. The branding is inspired by the energetic nature of Theatre. The system is meant to be fluid enough to work across multiple shows, but still retain a sense of the original branding that its followers have come to know so well.

Works Cited

1. Culwell-Block, Logan. “The Evolution of the Playbill Design From 1885–2018.” Playbill, 24 Aug. 2018,
2. “Gilman Kraft, Former Owner & Founder of CA’s Performing Arts, Dies June 27.” Playbill, 28 June 1999,
3. Gabby. “Playbill Branding –.” Working Not Working, 2021,

Chinese Shadow Puppetry

Shadow Puppetry

Shadow puppetry is an ancient Chinese art form. It’s  a form of theatre acted by colourful silhouette figures made from leather or paper, accompanied by music and singing. Manipulated by puppeteers using rods, the figures create the illusion of moving images on a translucent cloth screen illuminated from behind.

Shadow Play, was very popular during the Tang (618 – 907) and Song (960 – 1279) dynasties in many parts of China. Shadow puppets were first made of paper sculpture, later from the leather of donkeys or oxen. That’s why their Chinese name is pi ying, which means shadows of leather.

Legend Has It…

Shadow Puppetry is said to have originated in China. More than 2,000 years ago, a favorite concubine of Wu Emperor of the Han Dynasty died of illness; the emperor missed her so much that he lost his desire to reign. One day, a minister happened to see children playing with dolls where the shadows on the floor were vivid. Inspired by this scene, the smart minister hit upon an idea. He made a cotton puppet of the concubine and painted it. As night fell, he invited the emperor to watch a rear-illuminated puppet show behind a curtain. The emperor was delighted and took to it from then on. This story recorded in the official history book is believed to be the origin of shadow puppetry.

Chinese Shadow Play, Chinese Shadow Shows, Chinese Shadow Puppetry - Easy  Tour China

The Break Down

One mouth tells stories of thousands of years; a pair of hands operates millions of soldiers. This is how the shadow puppeteer works. Nicknamed the business of the five, a shadow puppet troupe is made up of five people usually. One operates the puppets, one plays a horn, a suo-na horn, and a yu-kin(all 3 for 1 person), one plays the banhu fiddle, one is in charge of percussion instruments, and one sings. This singer assumes all the roles in the puppet show, which of course is very difficult. That is not all, the singer also plays several of the over 20 kinds of musical instruments in a puppet show. These ancient musical instruments enhance this ancient folk art.

Chinese shadow puppetry - intangible heritage - Culture Sector - UNESCO
Shadow puppetry returns to spotlight | In-Depth China | China Daily
All the World's a Puppet Stage - Galleries West

Influence: Word Travels Fast

The Song Dynasty witnessed the flourishing of shadow plays, which became a common street-side entertainment. During the Yuan Dynasty, the art entered its heyday and spread to distant lands like Persia, Arabia, and Turkey. In 1774, this “magic of the East” was introduced to Europe by Johann Goethe.

Fast forward to 2011, shadow play was listed as a UNESCO Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Though modern media and entertainment have shrunk the popularity of shadow play somewhat, it is still enjoyed by many people in rural China. In Hunan, Hebei, Gansu, and Shaanxi, where the traditional Chinese shadow plays are best preserved, it’s not difficult to find people who perform this folk art.

For The Culture

The relevant skills are handed down in families, in troupes, and from master to pupil. Chinese shadow puppetry also passes on information such as cultural history, social beliefs, oral traditions and local customs. It spreads knowledge, promotes cultural values and entertains the community, especially the youth.

Chinese shadow puppetry - intangible heritage - Culture Sector - UNESCO
Chinese shadow puppetry exhibition starts in Morocco -
Chinese shadow puppetry steps out of shade and into spotlight - SHINE News

Works Cited…

1. “Chinese Shadow Puppetry: History, Show and Art.” Travel China Guide, 21 Apr. 2021,

2. “The Traditional Art Form of Chinese Shadow Puppetry.” Google Arts & Culture, 2018,

3. Xu, Minjun. “Eastern Magic: Traditional Chinese Shadow Play – Discover China.” Discover China, 6 Sept. 2016,

4. “UNESCO - Chinese Shadow Puppetry.” Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2019,

What is the Grand Guignol

When it comes to the gran Guignol. This horror theater plays a high part in my paper topic. What I’m going to do is give a little insight into what it is and why I’ve chosen this topic. Well, one of the main reasons I’ve chosen a paper on horror is due to my fascination with horror. I like being scared I enjoy the rush it gives when trying to anticipate the night scare.

The Grand Guignol has mastered this technique of their time what was to be considered scary. I defined it as pretty gruesome in also comparison to the saw movies. In my knowledge with scary movies, sounds, lighting, and great make-up artist have created ways to invoke, what we call endorphins to make up scared. While the Grand Guignol used blood splattering on the audience members, head rolling, and vulgar scenes. Which made people faith in the aisle.

In the video

the key points the video I’ve entered above is exactly what they mention:

  • The Grand Guignol has been around for over 60 years
  • the Grand Guignol began horror theater in the year 1915
  • André de lorde was considered the prince of terror due to his unhealthy intrest since a child of suffering
  • He enjoyed listening to his fathers patiences scrming from behind the door
  • due to his obsseion this lead to the creation of this play that made people flea from the theater